Proficiency Level of Students: Intermediate
Size of Class and Age of Students: 18 year old 25 students
Date of Presentation: 14.12.2021
Estimated Duration of the Lesson: Twelve 40-minute sessions
Standards for students: Students must read a variety of print and nonprint texts to gain a better understanding of texts, themselves, and the cultures of the United States and the world; to learn new things; to respond to the needs and demands of society and the workplace; and to find personal fulfillment.Prior experience, contacts with other readers and authors, understanding of word meaning and other texts, word identification procedures, and comprehension of textual aspects are all factors they consider (e.g., sound-letter correspondence, sentence structure, context, graphics). Students employ a variety of tactics while writing, as well as other parts of the writing process, to connect with a variety of audiences for a variety of objectives.Students create, critique, and discuss printed and non-print texts using their knowledge of language structure, language conventions (e.g., spelling and punctuation), media techniques, figurative language, and genre. Students employ verbal, written, and visual language to accomplish their goals (for example, to learn, enjoy, persuade, and exchange information.
Pre-assessment activities:Students examine and discuss cultural colour suggestions, track Great Gatsby colour images, and finally analyze the character of The Great Gatsby based on observations of pertinent colour images.
Achievement Goals:Students will investigate the meanings of colour associated with the characters in F. Scott Fitzgerald’s novel The Great Gatsby in this lesson. Students will first think of different terms for the colour red during the pre-reading exercises, and then compare swatches of colour to those colour words.Students talk about connotations and how word meanings can change based on the situation. Students will work in groups to research the cultural meanings of a specific colour and present their findings to the rest of the class. Students then apply what they’ve learned to a colour study of Robert Frost’s poem “Nothing Gold Can Stay.” Students use a colour log to track colour images as they read The Great Gatsby. Students examine their observations on their colour logs after finishing their reading and use the material to produce an analysis of one of the novel’s main characters.
Lecture Explanation:For many pupils, reading literature is akin to going on a treasure hunt for the “right” answers.
Meaning is hidden and locked in the eyes of these students in order for the teacher to eventually expose it. Students frequently believe they lack sufficient knowledge to expose the meaning, so they wait for the teacher to unveil the mysteries. This lesson plan simulates a process that teaches students how to find their own meaning. We want pupils to “enjoy the play of language and proceed with a sense of knowledge toward examining literary traditions,” as Judith Burdan argues. Students become more attentive and confident readers as they learn to think about the rhetorical choices an author makes and the ramifications of the choices they make as readers. They are increasingly aware that they are a part of the process of creating meaning through language, even if that language is specialized and learn to enjoy themselves along the way.”
Materials: A novel, blackboard, exercise sheets, pictures for the computer, web sites, copies of The Great Gatsby, and some hard copies.
Websites:Exploring Cultural Connotations of Colour
F. Scott Fitzgerald: Career Timeline
“Nothing Gold Can Stay” by Robert Frost
The Great Gatsby Part I: Crash Course
This is the first of two videos that will help students grasp the main plot lines of The Great Gatsby.
The Great Gatsby Part II: Crash Course
This is part 2 (of 2) of a two-part film that will assist students in comprehending the key plot threads of The Great Gatsby. Please be mindful of the “spoiler notice” for pupils if you watch it on YouTube.
Copies of the colour Imagery Journal, Character Analysis Assignment, and Character Analysis Assignment Rubric should be made. If students want to keep track of colours throughout the text, they’ll need numerous copies of the Colour Imagery Journal. Instead of utilizing copies of handouts, you may invite students to draw columns in their journals or notebooks.
Create overhead sheets with a sample of the student’s daily activity answer (or arrange for an LCD projector to display the example).
- Collect red paint swatches from local hardware stores if wanted for use in the presentation. colour swatches can also be found on the Resene or Glidden websites. This activity can also be done using coloured pencils that students identify as red. Just make sure the coloured pencils’ names are put on the labels. You can also produce copies of a list of Crayola crayon colours or create an overhead transparency of the list for class viewing
- Additional resources on F. Scott Fitzgerald can be found on the American Masters website, which you can use to introduce the author. There are videos on the site that may be useful as a supplement. Check that the additional Real Player software required to play video files is installed on your classroom hardware.
- Calculate how many talks students will need to read and discuss the text. Adjust the number of courses required for the entire unit based on how much time your class will spend studying the novel.
- To familiarize yourself with the tools, try the Exploring Cultural Connotations of colour and F. Scott Fitzgerald: Career Timeline web pages on your computers. Make sure you have the Flash plug-in installed. The plug-in can be downloaded from the support website.
Before Reading the Book
- On the blackboard or a piece of white paper, write the word “Red.”
- Invite kids to come up with other terms to describe the colour red and write them on the board or chart. Burgundy, cardinal, carmine, cherry red, cherry, cranberry, purple, garnet, maroon, pink, rose, ruby, scarlet, vermilion, and wine are examples of possible answers. Compound terms like brick red or blood red can also be used by students. Allow pupils to experiment with a wide range of possible words. If children are having trouble coming up with ideas, advise that they consider paint colours, crayon colours, or even fingernail polish names.Compare the names of the paint swatches to the word list for red that the students brainstormed.
- Ask the students the following questions:
- How will readers or listeners react to these colourful names?
- What associations will they make?
- What do you expect from a can of paint bearing the name of these colours?
- Why does a paint company use one of these names for its products? What kind of buyers are they trying to attract?
- :Introduce the notion of connotation, which is defined as a person’s interpretation of a term.
You can compare a word’s connotation to its extension value, which is its more literal meaning, and give instances of words that have different connotations depending on the listener (for example, “chicken”):
It may have a distinct meaning for poultry growers. It’s a different story for restaurant owners; it’s a different one for people who are terrified.
If necessary, post the following internet definitions of connotation and extension:
- Connotations and Denotations, from the University of Ottawa
- Definition of Connotation and Denotation, from Bedford/St. Martin’s
- Students should apply this concept not only to the colours specified, but also to the colours of the paint swatches and the names of the crayons. Encourage them to debate how the colours make sense by asking a question like “Are there any other goods that this colour name would be acceptable for?”Compare the paint or crayon colour name to the colour used to describe the car, nail polish, or apparel if the student wants more ideas.
You have the option to inquire (and how the colour of the garment varies depending on the person who wears the garment).
Please provide more information with your students if they need it to understand the connotation. What exactly does the term “chicken” imply? The table serves as an overhead or handout to demonstrate the word’s numerous meanings. You can have a class discussion about the different meanings of the word, or you can divide your class into small groups, have each group evaluate one or more photos, and then share their findings with the rest of the class before moving on. After students have done this task, you can return to the topic of paint or crayon colours and encourage them to come up with a new name for a particular hue, defending their choice by discussing the significance associated with it.
6.Divide the students into eight groups once you’ve defined the connotation and are confident that they grasp the notion. For research, each group will be allocated a colour, so eight groups are required to span the colour spectrum.
7.Explain that during the next class session, each group will conduct research and gather knowledge regarding the cultural meanings of the colour they have been assigned. The group will make a presentation for the class explaining the semantics of their colour after they finish their research. You can also invite the pupils to make a class flyer on their colour if you want.
8.As part of their homework, have students keep track of where they saw their colour in their journals. For example, a red group member would write “apple” while a yellow group member might write “school bus.”
Remind students that they will be researching and compiling material regarding the cultural connotations of the specific colours they have been assigned in this course. The group will make a 3 to 5 minute presentation for the class to explain the meaning of their colours after finishing the research. You can also invite students to create handouts for the class based on their colours if necessary.
- Take part in the page Exploring Cultural Connotations of colour, which requires students to visit four websites and collect information about the associations and semantics of their group’s colour. Show students how to use the online note-taking application of their choice to print or save their findings.
- For the remainder of the course, allow students to research and prepare their presentations.
- When the group has finished their web research, have them read over their assignment list of colour examples and consider how the information about connotation applies to the examples they gathered. Students should be encouraged to use examples in their presentations.The students then move on to creating their presentations,and you can supply graph paper,markers,or other materials to aid them in their work.You may ask the groups to produce a PowerPoint presentation if they have access to a computer.
- Communicate between students while they work, provide feedback and support.
- At the end of the session, remind the students that they will present research on the colour of their group at the beginning of the next session.
Give students 5 to 10 minutes to practice last-minute preparation and presentations.
- Ask the groups to present their colour research to the entire class, allocating about five minutes per group.
- Encourage exploration in the classroom, particularly the exchange of instances of colour use that now appear meaningful rather than meaningless. Ask students to consider why fast food establishments utilize the colours they do in their logos and designs, for example.
- After talking about the general meanings of separate colours, spend a few minutes discussing what happens when they’re mixed together – do their meanings complement each other? Are you referring to something else? A combination of the colours red, white, and blue is a simple yet presumably clear example. What happens when you combine these three colours? What are the differences between the connotations they each suggested on their own?
- Inquire students to guess how the colour knowledge they’ve learned will effect a literary work. Consider reference to the examples as the students discuss the topic if they have lately read works with colour imagery.
5.As homework, have students read Robert Frost’s short poem “Nothing Gold Can Stay” and record in their diaries the poet’s use of colour pictures and the relationship between these images and the class’s colour studies. Encourage pupils to include the concepts connotation and denotation in their work.
Read the class Frost’s “No Gold Can Stay” book and invite students to discuss their thoughts and observations regarding the poem’s use of colour.
You can have students read their diary entries to the class or have students discuss their writings in general. Remind students to utilize the terms denotation and denotation correctly, as well as to make tangible connections between the pictures in the poem and the chromatic search for chapter.
- Explain that the class will trace the colour imagery through F. Scott Fitzgerald’s work The Great Gatsby once you’re sure that they comprehend the concept.
- To introduce biographical facts about Fitzgerald’s life, use F. Scott Fitzgerald: Career Timeline from PBS’ American Masters (or let students explore the interactive timeline on their own computer).
- Share extra resources from the F. Scott Fitzgerald Centenary Web site, which includes biographical information, images, texts, and critical analyses, as needed.
- Explain how Fitzgerald uses colour imagery to provide insights about the novel’s characters, storyline, and surroundings.
- Distribute colour imagery diaries to students and explain that they will use the form to track the use of colour pictures by authors while reading. Show students the cost of a colour imagery journal and have them duplicate the 4-column format into their diary, explaining that they will keep track of the colour image by noting it in the diary while reading.
- Demonstrate how to fill out the Conor Journal form by having the class fill out a blank form or viewing an overhead of a sample colour journal.
- Students should be reminded that they are not expected to locate and list every references, particularly if looking for colours interferes with reading.
- Answer any questions children may have about the procedure, and then have them read the book and colour the illustrations for homework.
SESSIONS FIVE TO TEN
WHILE READING THE BOOK
- Reading novels in class is similar to reading any other book, with students participating in any comprehension and discussion activities that are appropriate for them. Discuss colour visuals if you’re having trouble talking about certain areas of the novel.
- Try the following lesson plans for more structured storytelling tasks.
- The “Secret Society” and Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby, from EDSITEment
- Murder and Mayhem—The Great Gatsby: The Facts Behind the Fiction, from the Library of Congress’s American Memory Project
AFTER READING THE BOOK
After reading the novel, ask the student to review the entry in the Colour Imagery Journal.
- Ask students to choose a specific colour to track the novel, paying attention to how Fitzgerald uses the colour and its associated characters. You can share examples with your students to ensure they understand your expectations. For example, when Tom is in the scene, Fitzgerald often refers to shades of red. Explain that the student’s job is to think about why Fitzgerald created this colour-personality relationship.
- Allow students to freely write down the characters most relevant to the selected colour and what they noticed when viewing the diary within 10 minutes.
- Distribute students in random groups of two or three people each – no need to group them according to the colours they wrote about. In fact, it is advisable for the groups to discuss the range of colours and characters.
- In these groups, ask students to share and discuss observations and free texts. Encourage students to talk about colour, personality, general conclusions, and questions.
- If the student group did not bring up this topic, please ask the group to directly contact them for their research on the meaning of colour in the early lessons of this unit.
- Bring the class together and divide the chalkboard into five sections, one each for Daisy, Tom, Jordan, Gatsby, and others (or hang a piece of paper for each figure).
- Together with the class, according to the students’ display of colours, list the colours associated with each character and possible symbolic meanings.
- After all of the characters have been labelled, discuss the results. Students may disagree on what a particular colour tells readers about the characters. Encourage students to point to evidence in the novel to support their interpretations.
- For homework, ask students to summarise their conclusions about the characters and colours they wrote at the beginning of the course.
Invite students to share any comments on their homework or reflections on the colour images in the novel.
- Explain that students will use their Colour Imagery Journals and colour association research to write a thesis that explains their analysis of a particular character from the novel.
- Distribute copies of the Character Analysis Task and the Character Analysis rubric. Explain the activity and answer any student questions about this activity.
- Point out the resources students can use when dealing with personality analysis essays. Specifically, talk about how to use the notes in Colour Imagery Journals and the presentation information from the previous conference about colour association. In addition, remind students that their notes from the previous class and the notes they wrote for homework include detailed information that they can use in the drafting process.
- Students may be concerned that they have missed important clues about the colours they are researching. If you find this situation in your class, check out the online version of The Great Gatsby and demonstrate that you use the Search command in your web browser to find specific colour references in the book.
- Allow students to start working on their drafts in the time remaining in class. Students can share drafts as they progress through the class.
- At the end of the session, remind students when the final draft of their work will expire.
Continuing the course, allow students to write in class, share their drafts with the group, and compare their work with the grading rules.
- Because the student’s work contains quotes from the novel, the class has a mini-lesson on how to use quotes to puncture sentences. During the editing for drafts of the analysis of the character analysis, use the ReadWriteThink lesson Inside or Outside? A Mini Lesson on Quotation Marks and More, a mini lesson on quotes and more that explains the rules of punctuation. Then ask the students to apply the mini lesson to the draft.
STUDENT ASSESSMENT / REFLECTIONS
Monitor student interactions and progress during group work and research sessions to assess social skills and assist students with problems in their projects.
- Check the completion and detailed information of the student’s colour image log. If possible, monitor items informally as students read so that you can provide suggestions and feedback before students finish reading the novel. Since colour journals will be a resource for students’ personality analysis papers, it’s best to make sure that their notes are helpful for future courses.
- Use the rubric to rate students’ final designs.
Colour Imagery Journal
|Page #||Passage from the Text||Related Character(s)||Connotations and Comments|
Sample of Student Daily Activity Response
|Page #||Passage from the Text||Related Character(s)||Connotations and Comments|
|10||“white palaces glittered”||Tom & Daisy (their home)||White = clean, well-groomed, innocent. Shine shows how clean and well-groomed they are. The palace also shows money.|
|11||“cheerful red and white” mansion||Tom & Daisy (their home)||Red=love, so maybe they are deeply in love. Also, possible danger? White=innocent, supports love idea|
|11||windows “reflected gold”||Tom & Daisy (their home)||Gold = money. They are rich. I wonder if the reflex matters? Like, only a mirror image of the rich.|
|12||“rosy-coloured” “wine-coloured rug”||Tom & Daisy (their home)||More red. Either they are in love (like before) or there is some kind of danger with all the red in the room as a signal.|
|15||“grey sun-strained eyes”||Miss Baker||Grey = colourless? Black and white cancel each other out. But the sun shows that it is from activity and from outside|
|16||“black and blue” knuckle||Daisy|
Black and blue = a bruise, like a beating. Maybe all red symbolises danger, Daisy is in danger, who is Tom?
|17||women wearing white dresses||Daisy and Miss Baker||White for innocence, a way to keep a cool head in the heat. Also shows cleanliness, they look after themselves.|
|22||“autumn-leaf yellow” air||Miss Baker||Yellow seems to be dirty and faded, but because it is autumn leaves, it seems to emphasise the connection with the outdoors and activities.|
|24||“our white girlhood”||Daisy & Miss Baker, but Daisy says it||Their innocence as children / girls. Are they wearing a white dress like a way to regain that innocence?|
|28||“yellow brick” building||The Wilsons, garage/home||It’s kind of old, faded, and maybe sloppy, like uncaring because it has turned yellow from neglect.|
|28||“blonde” with “light blue eyes”||Mr. Wilson||He was pale, fair, and light. Yellow as old, faded or white as innocent, combination? Light blue eyes = pale hope, pale happiness|
|30||Mrs. Wilson in a blue dress||Mrs. Wilson||Hope and happiness, she has both|
|31||Mrs. Wilson changes to brown dress||Mrs. Wilson/Tom (?)||Brown is dirty. Myrtle feels this way with Tom? Tom makes Myrtle feel dirty?|
|35||Myrtle changes to cream coloured dress||Myrtle||Doesn’t know what she wants (3rd dress). The cream seems to be white, kind of innocent and pure. Trying on a new personality?|
Rubric for Character Analysis Assignment
|Connection between character and colour imagery||It explains how colour photographs help the reader to gain a deeper understanding of the chosen character.||Explains how the colour images help a reader better understand the selected character.||Explains how colour images work, but does not relate to the character.||Does not fully explain colour imagery and / or has nothing to do with any character in the novel.|
|Analysis of colour imagery||Using the character’s thoughts, words, and actions as evidence, it provides a detailed analysis of how the meaning of colour is applied to the character.||Analyses how colour connotations apply to the character, using the character’s thoughts, words, and actions as evidence.||It analyses how colour semantics are applied to a character, but does not include examples of the character’s behaviours that support the analysis.||Does not analyse how colour connotations apply to the character.|
|Use of supporting quotations||Contains direct quotations from the novel along with your analysis of those quotations.||Includes direct quotes from the novel as well as some analysis of those quotes.||Includes indirect quotes from the novel as well as analysis of ideas.||Does not include citations in the novel and/or analysis of these citations.|
|Knowledge of cultural colour connotations||Includes in-depth knowledge of the cultural connotations of colours in his analysis.||Incorporates adequate knowledge of the cultural connotations of colours.||Includes some knowledge of the cultural connotations of colours, but may use more detailed information.||Does not contain information about the cultural meanings of flowers.|
|Use of the conventions of standard, written English||Contains no more than two errors in spelling, grammar, and punctuation.||Include three to four spelling, grammar, and punctuation errors.||Contains five spelling, grammar, and punctuation errors.||Contains 5 or more errors in spelling, grammar, and punctuation.|
Character Analysis Assignment for The Great Gatsby
Based on a colour associated with the character, write an article analysing the characters in The Great Gatsby.
Your paper should achieve the following goals:
- Explain how colour images can help you better understand the character of your choice.
- Using the character’s thoughts, words, and actions as evidence, it provides a detailed analysis of how the different meanings of colour apply to the character.
- Include direct citations from the novel, along with an analysis of these citations.
- Incorporate knowledge of the cultural meaning of colour into your analysis.
Follow standard written English conventions and use spelling, grammar, and punctuation correctly.